Celebrating more than twenty years as the single best source in the field, this Fifth Edition has now expanded into two cornerstone volumes with 53 fully inclusive chapters and 73 renowned contributors that comprehensively address every topic and trend relevant to the identification, diagnosis, and management of endocrine and endocrine-related disorders in children. Substantially revised, the Fifth Edition covers the most up-to-date appraisal of obesity in the pediatric population, as well as examines the latest breakthroughs in the care of diabetes, hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemic syndromes. This Fifth Edition also devotes chapters to the diseases of the endocrine glands, including disorders of growth, the adrenal cortex and medulla, as well as sexual differentiation, thyroid, and parathyroid conditions and fluid balance diseases.
With the advent of the worldwide obesity epidemic, a concurrent rise has occurred in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting younger individuals-the disease is no longer exclusive to adulthood. Diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications are also occurring at an earlier age, leading to increasing demands and costs on the healthcare system. In addition, the morbidity, disability and premature death caused by diabetic complications create a huge burden to families, employers and society at large. Thankfully, there has been a tremendous growth in new therapeutic classes of medications to help manage type 2 diabetes mellitus. These agents target many of the pathophysiologic defects of the disease with fewer side effects than the older agents. Newer insulin formulations have more predictable kinetics so patients can achieve better glycemic control with less risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Insulin delivery devices have also improved to include higher quality insulin pens, finer and shorter pen needles, and more technologically advanced insulin pumps.
As part of the Oxford American Endocrinology Library series, this handbook reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The content covers micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications, the array of glucose regulating therapies, treatment algorithms targeting the pathophysiologic defects of type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as strategies for macrovascular risk reduction via therapeutic lifestyle change (diet, exercise, smoking cessation), pharmacotherapeutic treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension, bariatric surgery and subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy, among other topics. Because of the concise yet comprehensive nature of the handbook, this volume is an excellent point-of-care reference for the clinician who regulary treats obese and diabetic patients.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the systemic diseases affecting a considerable number of patients (Bensch et al., 2003). Numerous experimental and clinical studies on the complications of diabetes mellitus have demonstrated extensive alterations in bone and mineral metabolism, linear growth, and body composition (Giglio and Lama, 2001). DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by disturbed glucose metabolism, manifesting primarily as chronic hyperglycemia…
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first discovered in pregnancy. Pregestational diabetes mellitus refers to any type of diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy. Pregnant women with pregestational diabetes experience an increased risk of poor maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. The extent to which GDM predicts adverse outcomes for mother, fetus, and neonate is less clear. Depending on the diagnostic criteria used and the population screened, the prevalence of GDM ranges from 1.1 to 25.5 percent of pregnancies in the United States. The incidence of GDM has increased over the past decades in parallel with the increase in rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this trend is expected to continue. It is unclear how much the increase in obesity will affect the proportion of women diagnosed with overt diabetes during pregnancy versus transient pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance. GDM is usually diagnosed after 20 weeks’ gestation when placental hormones that have the opposite effect of insulin on glucose metabolism increase substantially. Women with adequate insulin secreting capacity overcome this insulin resistance of pregnancy by secreting more endogenous insulin to maintain normal blood glucose. Women with less adequate pancreatic reserve are unable to produce sufficient insulin to overcome the increase in insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance results. Glucose abnormalities in women with GDM usually resolve postpartum, but commonly recur in subsequent pregnancies. Women with GDM have an increased risk of future development of overt diabetes. The cumulative incidence of diabetes after a diagnosis of GDM varies widely depending on maternal body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and time since index pregnancy, and it may reach levels as high as 60 percent. When glucose abnormalities persist postpartum in a woman with GDM, her diabetes is recategorized as overt diabetes. When this occurs, the likelihood that this woman had pregestational (i.e., overt) diabetes increases, especially if the diagnosis of GDM occurred before 20 weeks’ gestation and glucose levels were markedly elevated in pregnancy. Based on systematic reviews published in 2003 and 2008, the USPSTF concluded that there was insufficient evidence upon which to make a recommendation regarding routine screening of all pregnant women for GDM. The primary aims of this review were to (1) identify the test properties of screening and diagnostic tests for GDM, (2) evaluate the potential benefits and harms of screening at greater than or equal to 24 weeks and less than 24 weeks’ gestation, (3) assess the effects of different screening and diagnostic thresholds on outcomes for mothers and their offspring, and (4) determine the effects of treatment in modifying outcomes for women diagnosed with GDM. The benefits and harms of treatments were considered in this review to determine the downstream effects of screening on health outcomes. The intent of this review was also to assess whether evidence gaps in the previous USPSTF reviews have been filled. Key questions include: Key Question 1: What are the sensitivities, specificities, reliabilities, and yields of current screening tests for GDM? (a) After 24 weeks’ gestation? (b) During the first trimester and up to 24 weeks’ gestation? Key Question 2: What is the direct evidence on the benefits and harms of screening women (before and after 24 weeks’ gestation) for GDM to reduce maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality? Key Question 3: In the absence of treatment, how do health outcomes of mothers who meet various criteria for GDM and their offspring compare to those who do not meet the various criteria? Key Question 4: Does treatment modify the health outcomes of mothers who meet various criteria for GDM and their offspring? Key Question 5: What are the harms of treating GDM and do they vary by diagnostic approach?
Within the past 2 years, the American Diabetes Association (ADA)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) have revised their guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both organizations recommend a diagnostic glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of > 6.5% (based on a new appreciation of the relationship between glycemia and complications) and fasting plasma glucose levels or an oral glucose tolerance test. Findings from major trials of glucose control in patients with T2DM and the approval of novel medications have prompted revised treatment algorithms from both organizations. While both treatment guidelines recommend starting metformin in most patients on diagnosis of T2DM, they differ in terms of the “trigger” for treatment intensification (HbA1c ≥ 7% and > 6.5%, respectively) and which agents are preferred as second-line therapies. The ADA/EASD recommends a tiered approach to treatment, starting with well-validated second-line agents, such as sulfonylureas and basal insulin for patients unable to achieve target glucose levels with metformin. The AACE/ACE recommendations are based on the patient’s HbA1c level and include a broader range of first- and second-line therapies and combinations. In addition to metformin, the ACCE/ACE treatment algorithm includes dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, and glinides. Both organizations advocate individualizing therapy to meet patient needs. This review highlights recent changes in the guidelines and uses a case-based format to illustrate how the current guidelines may be tailored to fit individual patient characteristics and circumstances.
Original Publication Date: July 2011
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From the author: This study explored opinions, concerns, and recommendations regarding care of Type 1 diabetes in schools. Thirty adolescent females and their parents participated in semi- structured, individual interviews that were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and qualitatively analyzed. Responses emerged in three categories: knowledge/training of school staff; foods offered/available at school; and school rules. Participants expressed concerns that school personnel, particularly classroom teachers, possess limited knowledge of diabetes; that healthy food/beverage options are limited in the cafeteria, vending machines, and classrooms; and that school rules impede self-care of diabetes. Implications for enhancing diabetes management at school are noted.
Title: Adolescent and parent assessments of diabetes mellitus management at school.
Author: Rachel Hayes-Bohn
Publication: Journal of School Health (Refereed)
Date: May 1, 2004
Publisher: American School Health Association
Volume: 74 Issue: 5 Page: 166(4)
Distributed by Thomson Gale
This thematic volume focuses on the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Edited and authored by the foremost scientists in this field, it provides up-to-date information and directions for future research.
The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Chinese Medicine is a textbook and a clinical manual on the Chinese medical treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its many complications. Each facet of this complex condition is discussed in terms of its Western medical definition, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, current standards of care, complications, and treatment plans. This text outlines goals of therapeutic care, general considerations, diet & exercise, patient education, blood glucose monitoring and much more. This text discusses: * Gestational Diabetes * Diabetic Ketoacidosis * Diabetic Hypertension * Diabetic Hyperlipoproteinemia * Diabetic Retinopathy * Diabetic Neuropathy * Common opportunistic infections in patients with diabetes * Patient adherence and practitioner monitoring * Appendix of Chinese medicinals, and Western pharmaceuticals “The authors of The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Chinese Medicine are to be congratulated for the first thorough and comprehensive look at the treatment of this all too common disease. Including detailed sections on the Western biomedical perspective, the history of the disease in China, and diet and exercise as well as pattern differentiation and treatment sections, this is an enormously valuable resource for students and practitioners. The value of this book is further enhanced by the inclusion of the wide variety of suggestions for treatments and many case histories and clinical outcome studies….An appendix of Western pharmaceuticals and a glossary of terms are included. One of the most impressive features of this book, especially for teachers and researchers, is the extensive bibliography of Chinese and English sources..” ~Greg Bantick, B.Ac., MTOM, Senior Lecturer, Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
- * The history of diabetes in Chinese Medicine
- * Commonly used Chinese medicinal formulas that are used with diabetes
- * Acupuncture, Acupressure and Tuina in the treatment of Diabetes along with Diet & Exercise modifications
- * The disease causes and mechanisms of Diabetes as well as pattern discrimination
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and it is now the fourth leading cause of death. These guidelines provide up-to-date, reliable and balanced information for the prevention and care of diabetes mellitus in the Region. The information is evidence-based and clearly stated to facilitate the use of the guidelines in daily practice. They are intended to benefit physicians at primary, secondary and tertiary level, general practitioners, internists and family medicine specialists, clinical dieticians and nurses as well as policy-makers at ministries of health. They provide the information necessary for decision-making by health care providers and patients themselves about disease management in the most commonly encountered situations.
The term “Alternative Medicine” encompasses many forms, and elicits at least as many opinions. This authoritative, objective set is in tune with the subjects that matter to students and researchers, presenting four volumes of current, unbiased information on alternative and complementary medical practices. Covering all aspects of the subject—Therapies, Conditions/Diseases, Herbs/Plants and People—the “Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine” identifies 150 types of alternative medicine being practiced today, including reflexology, acupressure, acupuncture, chelation therapy, kinesiology, yoga, chiropractic, Feldenkrais, polarity therapy, detoxification, naturopathy, Chinese medicine, biofeedback, Ayurveda and osteopathy. For the practitioner or interested patient, there are current training requirements, listings of organizations, as well as descriptions of treatments.
This study aimed to investigate the cut-off value of glucose challenge test (GCT) for screening Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in a Bangladeshi population. A total of 224 Bangladeshi pregnant women who underwent a GCT were prospectively investigated. GCT was performed between 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. Women demonstrating GCT exceeding 130 mg/dl (>7.2mmol/l) received a 75 g, 2 hr oral glucose tolerance test to determine whether or not they had GDM. Twenty three (10.3%) women were diagnosed to have GDM. The receiver-operator characteristics curve identified a GCT finding above 174 mg/dl as the cut-off value for detecting GDM, which showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 35%, 90%, 80% and 68% respectively. Based on PPV and NPV, our data suggest that 1 hr-50g GCT is a feasible and acceptable screening test and a cut-off value of 174 mg/dl, as the post-challenge serum glucose, may be appropriate for screening GDM in Bangladeshi population by this test.
The fundamental treatment and management goals in diabetes mellitus are to control and normalize blood glucose levels and to prevent diabetic complications. It also includes maintaining normal growth and development and normal body weight. Proper diet, regular exercise, weight control and different therapeutic agents are the mainstays of diabetic care and management. Weight reduction and exercise have been shown to improve tissue sensitivity to insulin and allow its proper use by target tissues. It is obvious that medical management and goals of therapy for diabetes mellitus have changed since the publication of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial in 1993. Recent studies have shown that the risk of developing retinopathy can decrease by 76% in properly managed diabetic patients when compared to control group and that clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms of nephropathy and neuropathy can also decrease by 54 to 60%. Modern approaches to the management of diabetes mellitus embrace holistic options and this book addressed various approaches in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus is a complex, progressive disease, which is accompanied by multiple complications. It is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system and listed among the most common disorders in both developed and developing countries. It has a global metabolic epidemic and it is estimated that the number of people affected by the disease will rise from the current 150 to 230 million by 2025. Hyperglycaemia is a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus and chronic hyperglycaemia could lead to long-term complications in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. Interestingly, this book examines the pathophysiology and selected complications in diabetes mellitus.
The MediFocus Guidebook on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is the most comprehensive, up-to-date source of information available. You will get answers to your questions, including risk factors of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, standard and alternative treatment options, leading doctors, hospitals and medical centers that specialize in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, results of the latest clinical trials, support groups and additional resources, and promising new treatments on the horizon. This one of a kind Guidebook offers answers to your critical health questions including the latest treatments, clinical trials, and expert research; high quality, professional level information you can trust and understand culled from the latest peer-reviewed journals; and a unique resource to find leading experts, institutions, and support organizations including contact information and hyperlinks. This Guidebook was updated on January 13, 2012.
Rosie is an athletic middle-aged woman who loves to jog. Unfortunately, her aunt was diagnosed with diabetes a few years back. Rosie’s book, “In Control: The Diabetes Diet Plan For Preventing, Living With And Reversing Diabetes” is based on her own experiences with researching the condition and managing her aunt’s diabetes. In the beginning, Rosie knew what insulin was, but not much more. After her Aunt was diagnosed, Rosie spent hours in the library and online doing research. As a result of her efforts, her Aunt was able to overcome the limitations of the disease and live a normal life.
No fluff, just common sense advice
Her book is full of straight talk, and it gives plenty of advice and insights from what she has learned. It is a perfect read for diabetes caretakers that comes from experience rather than random talking heads.
You will learn how to:
- Prevent diabetes for those at risk of acquiring it
- Prepare delicious, mouth-watering diabetes recipes
- Eat the right foods, even when traveling
- Track your insulin levels
- Create a plan for diabetes management and stick to it
- Be healthier, happier, and feel better than ever before
Decreases your anxiety about the condition
This book was originally published prior to 1923, and represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. While some publishers have opted to apply OCR (optical character recognition) technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results (frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting) and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints. We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher.
Essence of Anesthesiology Practice makes it easy to formulate anesthesia plans through a consistent format and discussions of the problems, causes, comorbidities, and anesthesia implications for over 600 clinical topics. Drs. Fleisher and Roizen present a completely revised new edition that includes coverage of many new conditions, procedures, and drugs. Online access to the fully searchable text at www.expertconsult.com means that you can get the information you need more easily and conveniently.
- Easily formulate anesthesia plans through a consistent format that covers a single clinical topic on each page, with a review of its problems, causes, comorbidities, and anesthesia implications.
- Get state-of-art, reliable coverage from an international team of experts who discuss common and rare conditions and how to manage them.
- Understand the interactions of common drugs and alternative medicine so that you can develop anesthesia plans accordingly.
- Access the fully searchable text online at www.expertconsult.com.
- Quickly reference key information using the carefully templated text that highlights the most important anesthetic considerations in a consistent, user-friendly layout.
- Stay current on the latest anesthetic implications in regards to coexisting diseases, procedures, drugs, and alternative and complementary therapies, including coverage of mitochondrial myopathy, atrial fibrillation ablation, awake craniotomy, stereotactic neurosurgery, neuroprotection, dexmedetomidine, and other hot topics.
Master the core knowledge of Anesthesia and overcome new factors in anesthetic care of patients with trusted reference in a high yield format
The 4th Edition of this practical resource has been completely revised and expanded to include the latest, most specific information on all basic aspects of diabetes. The section on patient education has been thoroughly expanded to include an in-depth discussion of the “empowerment” model. Provides updates on the diagnosing and treatment of DKA and HNKS. Also features current information on dietary therapy, new detailed algorithms for adjusting insulin levels, new oral anti-diabetes medications and a new chapter on diabetes and pregnancy!
Type 2 diabetes has been a 61% increase in incidence between 1990 and 2001 in the USA. There are 1.5 million new cases per year. Poorly-controlled diabetes that is characterized with increased glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c>8%, is increasing world wide, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects a substantial number of pregnancies, which complicates 7% of all pregnancies. Substantial evidence from studies support the dietary fiber and types of carbohydrate (glycemic index and load) impact on postprandial glucose and insulin responses. High carbohydrate intake recommended in diabetes, resulting in suboptimal glycemic control and lipoprotein profile, gradually increasing insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medication requirement and eventually weight gain. Therefore, we investigated the role of low glycemic index-glycemic load diet with and without extra fiber (wheat bran) on blood glucose profile of insulin resistance, diabetes and GDM subjects. The diets included lower amount of carbohydrate and higher fat content than traditionally introduced diets as an alternative approach to reduce glycemic response to carbohydrate and also reducing HbA1c concentration of poor-controlled diabetes
This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections
such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact,
or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections,
have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works
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The below data was compiled from various identification fields in the bibliographic record of this title. This data is provided as an additional tool in helping to ensure edition identification:
Harvey John Philpot
Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1884
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. This book contains an overview of diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, pre-diabetes, diagnosis, management, and much more.
Project Webster represents a new publishing paradigm, allowing disparate content sources to be curated into cohesive, relevant, and informative books. To date, this content has been curated from Wikipedia articles and images under Creative Commons licensing, although as Project Webster continues to increase in scope and dimension, more licensed and public domain content is being added. We believe books such as this represent a new and exciting lexicon in the sharing of human knowledge.
This book contains the reviews delivered at the Bayer Centenary Symposium held in Edinburg in May 1988. Experts in the field reported on recent developments in the pathophysiology and therapy of diabetes mellitus. Thus an up-to-date overview of diabetes mellitus research presented to a small group of specialists is now available to a broader community of endocrinologists, physicians and internists.
Photo Mug showing Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork. Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork. Diabetes is caused by low levels of the hormone insulin and resistance to insulin by the body cells. Without insulin, the body cannot metabolise glucose as an energy source and the build up of glucose in the blood can be damaging. The progression from green to red seen here could illustrate dangerous levels glucose in the blood. Chosen by Science
- PHOTO MUG This Photo Mug features an image of Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork chosen by Science Photo Library. Estimated image size 113x80mm.
- 11oz White ceramic coffee mug. Image printed using sublimation ink process. Microwave, dishwasher safe
- Image Description: Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork. Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork. Diabetes is caused by low levels of the hormone insulin and resistance to insulin by the body cells. Without insulin, the body cannot metabolise glucose as an energy source and the build up of glucose in the blood can be damaging. The progression from green to red seen here could illustrate dangerous levels glucose in the blood.
- For any queries regarding this image of Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork please contact Science Photo Library c/o Media Storehouse quoting Media Reference 6422267
- Image of Diabetes mellitus, computer artwork is supplied by Science Photo Library. © David Mack/science Photo Library
This book focuses on the geographical aspects of the epidemiology of diabetes. It examines such diverse populations throughout the world, including American Indians, Latin America, Africa, China, Japan, and the Middle East. The authors also provide a thorough examination of the economic costs of the disease.
Diabetes mellitus is an ancient disease that continues to plague modern man. Although the frequency of many serious disorders, such as coronary heart disease, has declined since the 1960’s, diabetes rates are approaching epidemic proportions in Westernized countries. Although representing only 10% of cases of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is also rising in frequency. The economic cost of diabetes is staggering, costing the United States more than $100 billion annually. Appropriate management of diabetes requires the efforts of clinicians, laboratorians, and pharmacologists. The goal of this book is to acquaint the laboratorian with the pathophysiology, the diverse etiologies, the complications, the clinical management, and, finally, the diagnostic and routine laboratory evaluation of diabetes.
To that end, you won’t find a better warrior in the war on diabetes than reading this book.
We are honored to inform you that many leading hospitals use our books in their medical library to be used by physicians. They are Harvard University, Columbia, NYU, UCLA, Johns Hopkins, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Tift Regional Cancer Center, Instituto Oncologia Moderna, Puerto Rico plus many others.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the most common type of Diabetes, and is the source of much confusion.
There are many treatment options available, including new insulin products. But what are they and how can you know which ones are the right choice for you.
It is crucial for you to understand all your options when dealing with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Being knowledgable is still the best option available.
It is important to know that you have done everything possible to fight Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus successfully.
The Cancer Group Institute’s books explain, in plain English, the definition, types, risk factors, frequency, symptoms, evaluation, historical and latest effective treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
We describe the specifics of conventional treatments, hormones and combination therapies, complete with results.
We tell you everything you must know to help make the right choices today when dealing with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
We have put together, and detail the most proactive treatments, those with excellent results. We give you the doctors who are leading the field, their address, contact info and e-mails.
We explain in plain English what the therapies are, how they work, why they work and most importantly the results.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is more than a disease, its curable.
The book is packed with detailed pictures & diagrams.
Understanding your options will give you the peace-of-mind of knowing you have done everything possible to ensure a successful outcome.
While we don’t promise a cure, we will tell you everything you must know to help you make the right decision, today!
Authors Flaws, Kuchinski, and Casanas discuss the relationship between hypoglycemia and diabetes, insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and what Chinese medicine can do for each, gestational diabetes, diabetes and diet (both Chinese & Western), and diabetes and exercise, including qigong. Other topics of discussion include diabetes and psychological disturbances, diabetes and treatment adherence, and diabetes and denial.
Get vital information about how drugs work for your patients with diabetes mellitus, DKA, HHNK syndrome, and other complicationsÂ¡Xduring immediate and continuing treatment. Know exactly what their actions mean to your nursing care before, during, and after drug therapy. In just 30 minutes, you’ll learn: â€žh how glucagon converts hepatic stores of glycogen into glucose â€žh how insulin attaches to receptors on cell membranes, allowing glucose to enter cells and provide energy for metabolism â€žh how a rapid drop in your hyperglycemic patient’s blood glucose level can cause cerebral edema â€žh how sulfonylureas lower the blood glucose level by causing beta cells to produce more insulin â€žh how gemfibrozil increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which helps prevent atherosclerosis (a macrovascular diabetic complication) by removing triglycerides from chylomicrons and VLDLs in the blood â€žh why repaglinide must be administered 15 to 30 minutes before meals
Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease requiring extensive strategies for effective management. Self-management of diabetes can be expensive and challenging for low-income patients. Current diabetes education and management programs largely target persons with higher levels of formal education and incomes. Kemper, Savage, Niederbaumer, and Anthony (2005) explored differences in knowledge about diabetes among low-income persons who had varying levels of formal education. The present study proposes to extend Kemper et al.’s study to examine the predictive relationship between diabetes self-management knowledge and level of formal education on depressive symptoms in low-income persons with diabetes mellitus. Results may guide nurses in designing effective diabetic education for low income persons who have varying degrees of depression symptoms and varying degrees of diabetes self-management knowledge.