As obesity has become a serious health problem globally, more attention is needed about nutritional problems in the overweight and obese population, especially about vitamins and oxidative stress. Scientific studies have found close relationships between vitamins and obesity. For example, childhood obesity is often associated with an increased risk of low vitamin B12 concentration.
The condition of deficiencies in several vitamins is especially serious in those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and after gastric bypass surgery. Individuals with deficiencies in some vitamins are more difficult to lose fat mass, and burn less fat during fat burning exercises. Low levels of certain vitamins may perturb cellular functions and impair insulin action, glucose metabolism and other metabolic processes.
Weight loss interventions are often associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as vitamin B6, calcium and vitamin E. Several vitamins have been found to play important roles in food intake and weight control. Supplementation of these vitamins may be helpful not only for weight loss, but also for the prevention of diabetes and other obesity-related diseases.
Certain diets can improve vitamin status and the whole dietary quality, and help maintain fat-free mass during the weight loss time. The right dosages are necessary after gastric surgeries for obesity, to adjust the reduced serum vitamin levels. Many vitamins are antioxidants. Correct dosages of vitamin supplementation may also help reduce systemic oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Effects and applications of vitamin A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on controlling body weight, cholesterol, and oxidative damages are discussed here.
“The condition … is especially serious in those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and after bariatric surgery. Some factors have been identified as contributors to …. These factors include oxidative stress, deficiency of other nutrients, insufficient intake food sources of …, and existence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease…”
“The researchers observed that chronic feeding of … led to significant decrease in body weight gain, …. The researchers observed that … could reverse cholesterol transport … and help maintain HDL-C homeostasis in obese rats.”
“Childhood obesity is often associated with an increased risk of …. …in oral dosage has been considered appropriate after gastric surgery for obesity…”
“Individuals with … may burn 30% more fat during a moderate exercise than those with…. Individuals with … may be more difficult to lose fat mass. Studies have found that … can cause significant decline in food intake and fluid intake, …”
“The status of … may also influence psychological conditions. For example, … have been associated with symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects. Supplementation with … has been found to relieve these symptoms.”
“This is shown in … the improvement of the liver function, which indicate the potentials to decrease the risks of cardiovascular and liver diseases in obesity.”
“These two are risk factors for coronary heart disease. Such results suggest that … may be helpful for reduce risk factors for both obesity and coronary heart disease.”